The environmental safety of pharmaceutical and personal care products (PPCPs) requires a crucial examination. The aim of this study was to evaluate the responses of biomarkers of stress and toxicity in freshwater mussels to the effect of commonly found PPCPs in wastewater. We treated male mussels Unio tumidus, from an undisturbed site with ibuprofen (IBU, 250 ng L− 1), triclosan (TCS, 500 ng L− 1), or estrone (E1, 100 ng L− 1) for 14 days. Untreated mussels from this site (C) and mussels inhabiting a polluted area (P) were also examined after a similar time of being kept in the laboratory. The consequences of chronic exposure of the mussels in the P-group were reflected in elevated concentrations of oxyradicals (1.4 times), oxidized glutathione (4.3 times), lipofuscin (2.2 times), and DNA-strand breaks in the digestive gland (DG) in comparison to the C-group, higher levels of caspase-3 activity in the DG, and vitellogenin-like proteins in gonads among all studied groups. Exposed mussels demonstrated some common responses with mussels in the P-group: elevated levels of lactate/pyruvate ratio, lipofuscin (IBU and E1), DNA fragmentation (TCS and E1), and caspase-3 activity (TCS and E1). Exposed to PPCPs mussels also showed elevation of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase and/or glutathione-S-transferase activity in the DG and a decrease in lysosomal stability in hemocytes (TCS and E1). The TCS group was distinguished by having the highest level of DNA-fragmentation and the lowest concentrations of total glutathione, oxyradicals, lipofuscin, pyruvate, and lactate, reflecting total metabolic depression. These results show that selected PPCPs at low concentrations alter a variety of physiological processes in this animal model system.
Falfushynska H, Gnatyshyna L, Osadchuk O et al: Diversity of the molecular responses (2014)
Falfushynska H, Gnatyshyna L, Osadchuk O, Farkas A, Vehovszky Á, Carpenter DO, Győri J, Stoliar O
Diversity of the molecular responses to separate wastewater effluents in freshwater mussels
COMPARATIVE BIOCHEMISTRY AND PHYSIOLOGY C-TOXICOLOGY AND PHARMACOLOGY 164: pp. 51-58. (2014)
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